Prolapse happens when a tortoise strains so hard that one of its internal organs (intestine, cloaca, colon, hemipenis, phallus, uterus, or bladder) slides out of its vent.
It’s usually a secondary complication, so the existing health problem will need to be resolved before your tortoise can recover.
Tortoises need veterinary care to return their internal organs to the inside of their body. The tortoise is in danger of ripping, dragging, cutting, or damaging the exposed organ.
The longer the tissue remains exposed, the more likely a tortoise will develop an infection and experience necrosis (tissue death).
A vet will diagnose what caused the prolapse and what organs have slid free before cleaning, repositioning, and putting the internal organs in place.
What Causes Tortoise Prolapse?
Anything that puts excessive pressure on certain internal organs is a risk factor for prolapse in tortoises. A prolapse looks like the tortoise’s insides are coming out.
There are several types of prolapse in tortoises:
- Colon prolapse
- Oviduct prolapse
- Urinary bladder prolapse
- Copulatory organ prolapse
Prolapse can occur due to any of the following:
Infections And Disease
An infection may cause your tortoise’s internal organs to become inflamed.
Depending on the type of infection and its location, it may also weaken the muscle structure around the organs. A combination of the two may lead to the tortoise appearing to poop out its insides.
This can be due to diarrhea, intestinal parasites, bladder stones, cystitis, or hypocalcemia.
If a tortoise has a bad fall, is attacked, or gets into a fight with another tortoise, it may be injured internally. Also, getting butted or flipped over by another tortoise can sometimes lead to prolapse.
Eating Non-Food Items
Tortoises can unintentionally eat stones, gravel, pebbles, and other inedible items.
Unfortunately, these can get caught or build up within the digestive tract. As the tortoise tries and fails to pass them, they may eventually be pooped out, taking the tortoise’s internal organs with them.
Copulation Ended Prematurely
If a tortoise is separated forcefully during copulation, it can lead to copulatory organ prolapse.
Male tortoises have a hook at the end of their penis, which attaches to the inside of the female. As long as the mating process is allowed to naturally conclude, it’ll unhook, and the two can separate harmlessly.
If the breeding tortoises are forcefully pulled apart, this can pull out their sex organs.
Egg Binding (Dystocia)
If an egg gets stuck in the reproductive tract, it can cause oviduct prolapse. A radiograph examination will be required to identify any eggs in the coelomic cavity.
Egg binding is an unavoidable cause and can happen to any female tortoise, captive or wild.
Signs of Tortoise Prolapse
Prolapse in tortoises has the following signs and symptoms:
The main sign will be an internal organ protruding from the vent (butt). It usually looks like a pink or red mass, which occurs due to inflammation.
However, not all organs pushed out of a tortoise’s body are exposed by prolapse.
Some male tortoises deliberately push out their penises for display when bored. Male tortoises have large and dark-pink sex organs, accounting for up to half of their length.
However, a penis pushed out for display should retract automatically after a while. If it’s a prolapsed penis, it’ll be red and swollen, and your tortoise will be unable to retract it.
A tortoise straining to go to the toilet is a sign of prolapse, so check its vent for prolapse if you see your tortoise pulling its head into its shell during an attempted bowel movement.
No Fecal Matter
Tortoises usually poop every 2-3 days. Prolapse is painful and complicates the entire digestive process, so a tortoise that’s prolapsing will experience difficulty going to the toilet.
Dehydration And Inappetence
Your tortoise will display symptoms of dehydration and lack of appetite (anorexia) during prolapse.
This is a response to the feelings of extreme sickness the tortoise experiences, and it’ll mean that its inners are too cramped and poorly rearranged to eat or drink properly.
Will Prolapse Go Away On Its Own?
If one of your tortoise’s sex organs has prolapsed, it should go back on its own within a few minutes. However, internal organs won’t retract on their own, so medical intervention will be required.
According to the Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery, internal tissues rot during prolapse. The longer a tortoise’s internal organs are exposed, the more likely infection and tissue death (necrosis) become. So, a prolapsed tortoise should be seen by a vet without delay.
What To Do If Your Tortoise Has a Prolapse
If prolapse doesn’t resolve itself, you should book a vet appointment.
Most prolapse cases require steps to reduce swelling, remove the damaged tissue, and reposition the internal organs.
The vent opening may be needed to be sutured to reduce the chances of recurrent prolapse.
If your tortoise has a prolapse, separate it from other tortoises (if applicable). You should never keep a prolapsed tortoise with other animals. Instead, place it in an isolated area.
This will prevent further damage to the organs and tissues. Other tortoises might bite the prolapse if they see the swelling and coloration, so quarantining it will prevent injuries. This will also make it much easier for you to clean the prolapse site.
Ensure that the isolated area doesn’t contain anything that could scratch or puncture the prolapse. Line the tortoise’s temporary home with a soft blanket to prevent irritation and further damage.
Clean The Prolapsed Area
Flush the prolapse with clean, cool water to remove bacteria and reduce the swelling. Once the prolapse is clean, allow it to air dry as manipulation to the area could cause further swelling and edema.
Reduce Swelling And Edema
Minimize any swelling by using concentrated sugar content, like honey or granulated sugar. Leave it on the prolapse for 30 minutes before rinsing it off with cool water.
You can lubricate the prolapsed area to make it feel more comfortable. Eventually, a vet will cover the affected area with gauze to keep it clean and sanitary.
Your vet may recommend topical medication to help the prolapse retract.
How To Treat A Tortoise Prolapse
Cover the area with a sugary substance such as honey to reduce swelling and edema. It should be covered with a clean, damp cloth to make the tortoise feel more comfortable during transportation.
The vet will return the tortoise’s organs to the correct position. Surgical removal of damaged tissue will sometimes be required, especially if the tortoise has been injured.
After diagnosis, the vet may use the following surgical procedure:
- Administer pain medication and sedate the tortoise.
- Clean and lubricate the prolapsed area to reduce any swelling.
- Clean and take out any necrosed (rotted) tissue.
- Reposition the protruding organs in the right position.
- Use a transverse cloacal suture on the vent to reduce the chances of prolapse from reoccurring.
- Administer a course of antibiotics for accelerated healing.
If your vet suspects impaction or egg binding (dystocia), they’ll take an X-ray.
A vet may ask you to leave the tortoise at the clinic for further observation. If there are no further complications with the treatment process, your tortoise will fully recover.