Last Updated on: 5th October 2023, 01:22 pm
It may seem that tortoises are always sleeping, especially hatchlings and younger animals. You may be concerned if a tortoise appears asleep constantly, but it’s usually normal.
Tortoises have a diurnal sleep schedule, so they’re awake when it’s light and asleep when it’s dark. They also have a monophasic sleep schedule, sleeping for about 12 hours without awakening.
Baby tortoises sleep for 19-22 hours per day to assist with their growth and development.
Tortoises that sleep excessively may have the wrong temperature and light levels in their enclosure, but some adjustments will optimize their environment.
Sometimes, constant sleeping is due to illness or stress. A tortoise may have a health problem requiring a veterinary assessment if it seems weak, tired, and lethargic.
When Do Tortoises Sleep?
Tortoises sleep when it gets dark, as they have a diurnal sleeping pattern. This applies to all pet species, including the following:
- Hermann’s tortoises.
- African spurred tortoises.
- Leopard tortoises.
- Indian star tortoises.
- Russian tortoises.
- Marginated tortoises.
- Red-footed tortoises.
- Greek tortoises.
- Egyptian tortoises.
Tortoises determine night and day based on the amount of light entering their enclosure.
Tortoises that live outdoors will naturally fall asleep when the sun goes down. Indoor tortoises will fall asleep when their UV lamp is turned off and awaken shortly after it’s turned on again.
If a tortoise is housed at the right temperature with exposure to UV light, it’ll sleep in the late evening, wake up first thing in the morning, and remain awake during the day.
Should I Wake My Tortoise Up In The Morning?
You can safely wake up a non-brumating (hibernating) tortoise in the morning. Of course, it’s best to let the tortoise wake up when it feels ready to ensure it’s well-rested and won’t be startled.
A healthy tortoise will naturally wake up by itself if the enclosure’s temperature and light levels are optimal. Remember, all tortoise species have different temperature requirements.
If a tortoise sleeps all day and night, it may be attempting to brumate.
This is dependent on having a brumating tortoise species. For example, leopards, sulcatas, and Indian stars don’t brumate. Changing weather conditions and shorter days can trigger brumation.
Avoid letting tortoises brumate until they’ve fasted sufficiently to digest the food in their stomachs, which takes 2-6 weeks. Emptying the stomach takes longer for larger species.
Undigested food will ferment in the stomach, leading to bacterial infection and disease.
Many owners struggle to determine the difference between a dead and brumating tortoise. If a tortoise has been brumating for over 16 weeks, it should be woken up.
Why Is My Tortoise Sleeping So Much?
A tortoise should sleep during the night time, but there are reasons why it may sleep for longer:
Sleep is essential for growing tortoises because it takes energy to grow and develop into adults. Depending on their species, baby tortoises (hatchlings) will sleep 19-22 hours a day.
When a baby tortoise grows and matures into a juvenile tortoise, it should transition to a diurnal sleep schedule, only sleeping during the nighttime.
A healthy adult tortoise will usually sleep for up to 12 hours.
Temperature Is Too Low
Tortoises depend on light to determine when to sleep, but they also rely on the temperature. When temperatures are too low, you may notice the tortoise sleeping more often.
The temperature needs of a tortoise are species-dependent. Tortoises need a warm habitat with a basking spot, achieved with an ultraviolet or heat lamp.
During the day, tortoises need a temperature gradient, with a cool and warm end. This allows ectothermic animals to regulate their temperature because they’re environmentally dependent.
The temperature on the warmer side of the enclosure should be about 85-90 degrees Fahrenheit. The cooler side of the enclosure should be about 65-70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Tortoises don’t mind cooler temperatures in the evening, but temperatures can get too low. The nighttime temperature for most tortoise species should be about 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit.
Monitoring the nighttime temperature with a thermometer is essential. If the nighttime temperature gets too cold, some heaters, like ceramic heat emitters and mats, don’t emit light.
Tropical tortoises have slightly higher temperature requirements than others.
Tortoises use lighting cues to determine when they should sleep. However, some habitats don’t have sufficient lighting, the wrong type of light, or misuse the lights.
You’ll hear about UV lamps the most when setting up a tortoise table or enclosure. UV light is vital for a tortoise’s health but provides little visible light.
Visible light is how tortoises determine whether it’s night or day. You should establish an enclosure with UV and visible light throughout the habitat.
The Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery stated that UV light is vital for tortoises’ health. UV light synthesizes vitamin D3, which is essential for calcium absorption.
Tortoises use UV light to signal behavioral changes. Some owners also believe UV makes their tortoises more active and brightens the shell’s colors.
Switch off any light bulbs after 6-9 months. UV bulbs are notorious for burning out regularly, but there’s no current workaround for this problem.
Don’t wait to replace the bulb until it completely burns out. A bulb will output less UV light long before it stops working. If you replace the bulb too late, the tortoise won’t get the UV light it needs.
Lights can be a source of heat for an enclosure. However, UV lights may not generate enough heat, and not all basking lamps generate UV. Instead, use a combination of lights or a mercury vapor bulb.
Tortoises exposed to natural sunlight will have a better understanding of the seasons.
In the winter, a tortoise will naturally enter brumation patterns. If you notice the tortoise grows less active in October or November, it may be preparing for brumation.
Brumation describes hibernating reptiles, which is essential for reproduction and overall health. It’s when they’ll stop eating food and sleep until the temperatures rise again.
Most tortoise species naturally get sleepier during wintertime. However, if you notice the tortoise becoming less active, you may wish to check the light and temperature levels.
Brumation can be a difficult time for tortoises if their owners are ill-prepared. According to Veterinary Record, researchers noted a 7.78% mortality rate of brumating captive testudos.
Disease And Illness
Tortoises need more rest when unwell. If a tortoise is sick, expect it to sleep more than usual. You should also expect a sick tortoise to appear less active, which may be lethargic and weaker than normal.
Tortoises can become tired and weak for the following reasons:
- Respiratory infections: Tortoises may experience fatigue and lethargy due to breathing problems.
- Intestinal parasites: Parasites in the intestines, like worms, can disrupt nutrient absorption and cause inflammation in the gut.
- Metabolic bone disease (MBD): Tortoises with MBD may experience muscle weakness and lethargy, making it harder to move around normally.
- Dehydration: As dehydration becomes more severe, a tortoise will likely experience kidney damage and decreased urine production, leading to a disinterest in food and weight loss.
- Vitamin deficiency: A lack of vitamins A, D, and E can cause tiredness and lethargy.
If a tortoise appears sick, take it to a vet for an examination, treatment, and ongoing advice.
Stress affects tortoises in extreme ways but can lead to depression, causing them to sleep longer. This knock-on effect on the immune health makes it harder to fight illness and disease.
Reasons for stress are wide-ranging but include the following:
- Poor nutrition.
- Wrong temperature and humidity levels.
- Lack of space.
- Little enrichment.
- Changes to their routine.
- Predatory animals.
Once a tortoise’s needs are met, they have a better sleep schedule.
Check the UV lamp and temperature levels when a tortoise is healthy but regularly oversleeping. The lamp may need replacing, or you may need to adjust the temperature.